1 historical developments and potential applications smart materials and structures1 11 smart structures 3 111 smart material actuators and sensors 4 112 smart actuators 7 113 sensors 8 114 actuator sensor synthesis 8 115 control methodologies 9 12 manufacturing issues 10 13 piezoelectricity 10. Sensors play a vital role in a variety of industrial applications such as structural health monitoring process control and the mitigation of noise and vibration some commonly employed smart materials for sensor applications are piezoelectric materials shape memory alloys electroactive polymers and magnetostrictive materials either a . These smart sensors and smart devices are often integrated with various structures 6 to form so called smart structures which possess the ability to sense or and to respond to environmental or structural changes in a pre defined way with the developments in microprocessor technology wireless communications and sensor networks smart sensors and smart structures are finding more and more . Smart structures represent a new engineering approach or design philosophy that integrates the actions of sensors actuators and control circuit elements into a single system that can respond adaptively to environmental changes in a useful manner these integrated systems possess an inherent adaptation a functionality that adds significant value to materials technologies or end products . Smart sensors are different in many ways so it is hard to provide a concise definition typical characteristics of smart sensors include multiple sensor types on a single device wireless or digital communications capability built in intelligence for live adaptive behavior and on board battery power the current crop of smart sensors in the market uses a mixture of these features and at
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